Author(s): Treska S. Hassan1,2, Aida Paniccia3, Vincenzo Russo3, and Knut R. Steffensen1
The oxysterol receptors, LXRs, have recently been shown to reduce cell and tumour growth in various model systems. Activation of LXRs could therefore provide a novel approach for treatment of cancers. Here we show that LXRβ is the main executor of the antiproliferative effect in human breast cancer cells. LXR inhibits the activation of growth factor-induced triggering of the PI3K-Akt pathway. Phosphorylation of several protein kinases in this pathway, including Akt and the PI3K itself, is reduced upon activation of LXR. Both mRNA and protein expression levels of the PTEN and PHLPPL protein phosphatases were induced by LXR and the amount of the second messenger PIP3 reduced—a pivotal activator signalling molecule in the PI3K. This suggest that the intracellular signalling cascade mediating proliferative cues from growth factors is the responsible mechanisms underlying the antiproliferative effects of LXR in human breast cancer cells. This provides novel and in-depth insights of how LXR works in cancer cells where the LXRs control the activity of intracellular signalling cascades that regulate proliferation.