Table 1: Some currently used molecular biomarkers of exposure and the transcription factors that govern their response.


Biomarker Chemical Transcription factor

CYP1A PAHs, HAHs AhR
CYP2B pharmaceuticals, pesticides CAR
CYP3A pharmaceuticals, some EDCs PXR
Vitellogenin estrogens ER
CYP4A lipids, some organic pollutants PPAR
Peroximsome proliferation lipids, some organic pollutants PPAR
Metalliothionein Zn, Cd, Hg, Cu MTF-1
GSTs ROS, metals, HAHs, PAHs Nrf2, AP-1, AhR, PXR/CAR
C-reactive protein stress NF- κB
Superoxide dismutase ROS, physiological stress Nrf2, NF- κb, AP-1
Heat shock proteins stress, metals, ROS HSF