|Figure 5: Activation of transcription factors by external and internal stress reponses (Nrf2).
Reactive oxygen species modify central cysteine species on Keap-1 that leads to the
decoupling of Keap-1 and Nrf2. Alternatively, Nrf2 can be phosphorylated by kinases.
In turn, Nrf2 is decoupled from Keap-1 and translocates to the nucleus where it binds
Maf, JunD, or ATF4 and initiates transcription of a variety of antioxidant enzymes