Table 3: Transcription factors involved in regulated expression of carboxylesterases.


Transcription factors Trigger CES1 or 2 Rodent
Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) Phenobarbital CES1 and 2 ↑ [ 75 ] ↑ [ 97 ]
Differentiated embryo chondrocyte-1 (DEC1, BHLHE40) Proinflammatory CES1 and 2 ↓ [ 143 ] ↓ [ 124 ]
Glucocorticoid receptor (GR, NR3C1) Dexamethasone (DEX) CES1 and 2 ↑ [ 75 ] ↑↓ [ 76 , 77 ]*
Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2, NFE2L2) Guggulsterone CES1 ↑ [ 30 , 147 , 148 ] ↑ [ 148 ]
Pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2) Rifampicin/Dex CES1 and 2 ↑ [ 75 ] ↑ [ 97 ]
Tumor protein p53 (p53) Fluorouracil CES2 ↑ [ 31 , 151 ]

*Depending on a carboxylesterase.