Table 2: Regulators of CES1 and CES2 expression.


Regulator Function CES1 CES2 Rodent carboxylesterases
Dexamethasone Anti-inflammatory 25%↑ [ 75 ] 25%↑ [ 75 ] 60-90% ↓↑ 1 [ 75 , 76 ]
Fluorouracil Anti-cancer r i g h t a r r o w 50%↑ [ 31 ]
Phenobarbital Anti-epilepsy 20%↑ [ 75 ] 20%↑ [ 75 ] 40-70% [ 96 , 97 ]
Rifampicin Antibiotics 30%↑ [ 75 ] 30%↑ [ 75 ]
Interleukin-6 Proinflammatory 40%↓ [ 109 ] 40%↓ [ 109 ] 10-30%↑ 2, 10-15%↓ [ 110 ]
Lipopolysaccharides Immunostimulant 71%↓ [ 110 , 113 ] 51%↓ [ 110 , 113 ] 5-20%↑ 2, 10-20%↓ [ 110 , 113 ]

1Induction of certain isoforms and increased expression of certain suppressed forms by high concentrations; 2at low glucose concentrations in culture media.