Table 1: Effects of probiotic bacteria in obesity in animal models.

Probiotic Bacteria Used Study Model (Animal) Major Findings and Effect on Gut microbiota (if any reported) Reference

Lactobacillus mali APS1 HFD-fed mice ↓ BW (body weight), caloric intake and fat accumulation. Gut microbiota restored. Chen et al, 2018 [116]
B. lactis Bi1, B. breve Bbr8 and B. breve BL10 mixture HFD-fed mice Prevents the progression of obesity, reduces adiposity and inflammation and improves lipid profile. Roselli et al, 2018 [ 117 ]
L. plantarum HAC01 C57BL/6J HFD-fed mice Improved insulin sensitivity and gut permeability ↓ LPS production. Park et al., 2017 [ 118 ]
L. rhamnosus NCDC17 HFD and streptozotocin treated Wistar rats ↑ Insulin Sensitivity, glycosylated hemoglobin, FFA, TGs Improved lipid profile and oxidative stress. ↑ GLP1 and adiponectin, ↓ Inflammation by decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokines and propionate (in caecum) Singh et al., 2017 [ 119 ]
Probiotic mixture (L. salivarius 33 , L. rhamnosus LMG S-28148 , B. animalis subsp. lactis LMG P-28149 ) C57BL/6J HFD-fed mice ↓ BW and adiposity with improvement in insulin resistance, ↓ adipose tissue inflammation, ↑ dyslipidemia through adipose tissue immune cell-remodeling Alard et al., 2016 [ 120 ]
Lactobacillus sakei OK67 HFD-fed mice ↓ BW and epididymal fat, NF-κB activation, LPS production, and pro-inflammatory cytokines Lim et al, 2016 [ 121 ]
Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4270 (LC), L. rhamnosus I-3690 (LR) and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp (BA) HFD-fed mice Each strain changed a distinct set of microbial population. LC and LR increased cecal acetate levels. BA significantly decreased adipose and hepatic tumor necrosis factor-α gene expression. Attenuates obesity. Wang et al, 2014 [ 122 ]
L. coryniformis CECT5711 C57BL/6J HFD-fed mice Improve insulin sensitivity and gut permeability ↓ LPS production. Toral et al., 2014 [ 123 ]
L. casei NCDC 19 C57BL/6J HFD-fed mice ↓ BW, epididymal fat, blood glucose, plasma lipids and leptin ↑ adiponectin Rather et al., 2014 [ 124 ]
VSL#3 C57J/B67 HFD-fed and ob/ob mice ↓ adiposity Yadav et al., 2013 [ 125 ]
L. salivarius UCC118 C57BL/J6 HFD-fed mice ↓ BW Clarke et al., 2013 [ 126 ]