Figure 2: Vitamin D receptor in regulating various cellular and molecular functions: VDR regulates many vital physiological functions including immuno-modulation, proliferation, and autophagy via distinct effector molecules (as mentioned in the respective box). It directly influences the gut-microbiome and is involved in epigenetic modulation of the host. VDR is also known to block pathogen infection by regulating Paneth cells and anti-microbial peptides, such as defensins.