Table 1: Summary of PPAR ligands in different ocular diseases.


Pathology Area affected Nuclear receptor target therapy Therapies Ref.

Diabetic Retinopathy Retina (Macula) PPARγ TZD: ↑ PPARγ [2231, 3942];
PPARβ GW501516: ↑ VEGF [ 48 ];
PPARα Fenofibrate: ↑ PPARα [ 52 , 53 ].
Dry eye Cornea Conjunctiva PPARs Pioglitazone: ↑PPAR [ 54 , 55 ].
↓ NO
Age-Related Macular Degeneration Retina (Macula) PPARγ Troglitazone: ↓ Oxidative Stress
15d-PGJ2: ↓ Oxidative Stress [5665].
PPARβ
PPARα
Optic Neuritis Optic Nerve PPARγ PPARγ ↑ PPARγ [6675].
agonists: ↓ TNF
Glaucoma Optic Nerve PPARs PEA ↑ PPARγ [7683].
↑ PPARα
Ocular injuries Cornea PPARs PPARγ ↑ PPARγ [8392].
agonists: ↓ fibrotic reaction
Thyroid eye disease Cornea PPARγ Glitazones: ↓ Inflammation [9398].