Table 1: LIFE-EDESIA biomarkers of effects to detect an Endocrine Disruptor (ED)-like Mode-of-Action. Human cell lines, human tissue targets and main nuclear receptor-dependent signalling pathways involved are also reported.


Cell-specific, hormone-regulated biomarkers of effect Human cell lines Endocrine Disruptor (ED) cell (or tissue) target Nuclear receptor-, endocrine-dependent pathways controlling the selected biomarkers of effect

Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) secretion LAPC-4 and LNCaP Prostate epithelial-like cell (prostate gland) Androgen Receptor (AR)-mediated signalling pathway
β human corio-gonadotropin ( βhCG) secretion BeWo Trophoblast-like cells (undifferentiated, first trimester placenta) Estrogen Receptors (ERs)-mediated signalling pathways
α-fetoprotein (AFP) secretion HuH6 Fetal hepatocytes (fetal, immature liver) Signalling pathways mediated by hormones regulating carbohydrate and lipid metabolism ( e.g., PPAR- α, - β- γ)