Table 2: Mycotoxins and main associated adverse effects.

Mycotoxins Effects Cellular and molecular mechanisms of action

Aflatoxin B1 and M1 Hepatotoxicity Genotoxicity Carcinogenicity Immunomodulation Formation of DNA adducts Lipid peroxidation Bioactivation by cytochromes P450 Conjugation to GS-transferases
Fumonisins Central nervous system damage Hepatotoxicity Genotoxicity Immunomodulation Inhibition of ceramide synthesis Adverse effect on the sphinganin/sphingosin ratio Adverse effects on the cell cycle.
Ochratoxin A Nephrotoxicity Genotoxicity Immunomodulation Effect on protein synthesis. Inhibition of ATP production Detoxification by peptidases
Patulin Neurotoxicity In vitro mutagenesis Indirect enzyme inhibition
Trichothecenes (i.e.DON, T-2, HT-2) Hematotoxicity Immunomodulation Skin toxicity Induction of apoptosis in haemopoietic progenitor cells and immune cells. Effect on protein synthesis Abnormal changes to immunoglobulins
Zearalenone Reproductive adverse effects Binding to oestrogen receptors Bioactivation by reductases Conjugation to glucuronyltransferases