Table 2: The effect of ginseng and ginseng nanoparticles on the testicular histopathological changes induced by methotrexate in rats.


Histopathological parameter  


Group  Disruption of seminiferous tubules  Detachment of spermatogenic cells  Inflammation  Edema of interstitium  Congestion of vessels  Sertoli cells degeneration  Leydig cells degeneration 
1. Control  0 ± 0 ^{ b }  0 ± 0 ^{ b }  0 ± 0 ^{ b }  0 ± 0 ^{ b }  0 ± 0 ^{ b }  0 ± 0 ^{ b }  0 ± 0 ^{ b } 
2. MTX  2.78 ± 0.44 ^{ a }  2.67 ± 0.5 ^{ a }  1.44 ± 0.88 ^{ a }  2.56 ± 0.53 ^{ a }  2.33 ± 0.5 ^{ a }  2.11 ± 0.78 ^{ a }  2 ± 0.71 ^{ a } 
3. G 500  0.22 ± 0.44 ^{ b }  0 ± 0 ^{ b }  0 ± 0 ^{ b }  0 ± 0 ^{ b }  0 ± 0 ^{ b }  0 ± 0 ^{ b }  0 ± 0 ^{ b } 
4. GN 250  0.44 ± 0.53 ^{ b }  0 ± 0 ^{ b }  0 ± 0 ^{ b }  0 ± 0 ^{ b }  0 ± 0 ^{ b }  0 ± 0 ^{ b }  0 ± 0 ^{ b } 
5. GN 125  0.22 ± 0.44 ^{ b }  0 ± 0 ^{ b }  0 ± 0 ^{ b }  0 ± 0 ^{ b }  0 ± 0 ^{ b }  0 ± 0 ^{ b }  0 ± 0 ^{ b } 
6. G 500/MTX  0.56 ± 0.53 ^{ b }  0.44 ± 0.53 ^{ b }  0 ± 0 ^{ b }  0.33 ± 0.5 ^{ b }  0.56 ± 0.53 ^{ b }  0.56 ± 0.53 ^{ b }  0.33 ± 0.5 ^{ b } 
7. GN 250/MTX  0.44 ± 0.53 ^{ b }  0.67 ± 0.5 ^{ b }  0 ± 0 ^{ b }  0.33 ± 0.5 ^{ b }  0.44 ± 0.53 ^{ b }  0.56 ± 0.53 ^{ b }  0.33 ± 0.5 ^{ b } 
8. GN 125/MTX  0.44 ± 0.53 ^{ b }  0.22 ± 0.44 ^{ b }  0 ± 0 ^{ b }  0.11 ± 0.33 ^{ b }  0.44 ± 0.53 ^{ b }  0.33 ± 0.5 ^{ b }  0.22 ± 0.44 ^{ b } 


n (9 rats/group), MTX: methotrexate (20 mg/kg), G 500: ginseng (500 mg/kg/day), GN 250: ginseng nanoparticles (250 mg/kg/day), GN 125: ginseng nanoparticles (125 mg/kg/day), G 500/MTX: ginseng (500 mg/kg/day) + methotrexate (20 mg/kg), GN 250/MTX: ginseng nanoparticles (250 mg/kg/day + methotrexate (20 mg/kg), GN 125/MTX: ginseng nanoparticles (125 mg/kg/day) + methotrexate (20 mg/kg). Data are expressed as mean ± S.D, and the difference between groups was evaluated using oneway analysis of variance (ANOVA) test followed by Bonferroni multiple comparison test.  
^{ a }significant difference compared to control group at Pvalue < 0.05  
^{ b }significant difference compared to MTX group at Pvalue < 0.05  
CI = 95% 