Table 1: Steroid Receptors and their biological roles.


SR Endogenous (Human) Hormone Biology

AR Testosterone; 5-alpha dihydrotestosterone AR plays an important role in development and manifestation of the male phenotype [ 8 ]. Alterations in AR function are associated with diseases such as androgen insensitivity syndrome [ 9 ] and prostate cancer [ 10 , 11 ].
GR Cortisol In response to the binding of glucocorticoids, GR directly induces or represses the transcription of genes that govern a diversity of cellspecific processes ranging from stress response to metabolism [ 12 , 13 ]. Glucocorticoids possess powerful anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties, making them clinically desirable for the treatment of a plethora of diseases and cancers [ 14 , 15 ].
ER Estradiol; 17 β-estradiol Estrogen Receptors exist as two major sub-types, ERα and ERβ, which both bind estrogens to mediate a spectrum of biological effects in the CNS, immune, and cardiovascular systems [ 16 , 17 ]. Estrogens play important roles in developing and regulating normal sexual and reproductive function.
PR Progesterone PR plays important roles in female reproductive tissue development, differentiation and maintenance [ 18 , 19 ].
MR Aldosterone MR primarily functions as an electrolyte balancer [ 20 , 21 ]. Widely expressed in the cardiovascular system, MR plays roles in endothelial function, fibrosis, vascular oxidative stress and blood pressure [ 22 ]. In addition to its cognate ligand, MR can also be activated by glucocorticoids and progestagens.