Figure 3: Upstream regulation of PPARδ in the heart. The cardiac expression and activity of PPARδ can be elevated by various PPARδ agonists (endogenous, synthetic and natural ligands), post-translational modification (deSUMOylation), leptin and AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase). In contrast, PPARδ antagonists, microRNA (miR-199a-214) and nuclear receptor coregulator (Nuclear receptor coactivator 6). Arrows with solid lines: activation; Arrows with dash lines: inhibition.