|Figure 2: The pleiotropic and integrated effects of PPARδ that affects cardiac structure and
function. Investigations in the past 15 years uncovered the potential mechanisms underlying
the beneficial roles of cardiac PPARδ in determining cardiac pathophysiology. In addition
to direct transcription regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, substrate utilization
and antioxidant defense in the heart, PPARδ exerts anti-inflammation and cardiomyocyte
proliferated effects probably via interacting with other transcription factors and
cellular signaling pathways.