Figure 2: The pleiotropic and integrated effects of PPARδ that affects cardiac structure and function. Investigations in the past 15 years uncovered the potential mechanisms underlying the beneficial roles of cardiac PPARδ in determining cardiac pathophysiology. In addition to direct transcription regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, substrate utilization and antioxidant defense in the heart, PPARδ exerts anti-inflammation and cardiomyocyte proliferated effects probably via interacting with other transcription factors and cellular signaling pathways.