|Figure 2: Molecular mechanism of GR signaling pathways. Glucocorticoids diffuse across the cell
membrane to the cytosol, where they bind GR. Glucocorticoid binding promotes dissociation
of GR from chaperone proteins (HSPs) and subsequent nuclear translocation. Once in
the nucleus, GR forms hetero- or homodimers and interacts with DNA to control gene
transcription. Ligand-bound GR can lead to either activation or repression of gene
transcription. TF: transcription factor; GRE, glucocorticoid response element; nGRE,
negative glucocorticoid response element; TFRE: transcription factor response element.