Table 1: Select gut bacteria-secreted metabolites and their target host nuclear receptors.


Gut bacterial metabolites Bacterial phyla/genera/species Target nuclear receptors

Clostridium, Eubacterium Farnesoid X receptor (FXR)
Lactobacillus, Clostridium, Bacteroidetes FXR
Bacteroides fragilis, Parabacteroides distasonis, Clostridium bartlettii, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium longum Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)
Lactobacillus, Bacteroidetes AHR
Clostridium sporogenes Pregnane X receptor (PXR)
Lactobacillus AHR
Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria AHR
Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Bacteroidetes Peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor-gamma(PPAR-γ)
Escherichia coli, Bacteroidetes, Propionibacterium PPAR-γ
Bifidobacteria, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Propionibacterium, Lachnospiraceae, Lactobacillus PPAR-α, PPAR-γ