Table 3: The effect of ginseng and ginseng nanoparticles on methotrexate-induced testicular apoptotic changes rats (the percentage of area of testicular tissue stained with caspase-3).


Group No. Group name Percentage of testicular area stained with caspase-3

1 Control 5.76 ± 2.49 b, c, d
2 MTX 28.71 ± 2.83 a, c, d
3 G 500 8.59 ± 1.82 b, c, d
4 GN 250 11.39 ± 0.77 a, b, c
5 GN 125 9.98 ± 1.26 a, b, c
6 G 500/MTX 16.91 ± 3.33 a, b, d
7 GN 250/MTX 12.85 ± 3.15 a, b, c
8 GN 125/MTX 5.73 ± 2.63 b, c, d

n (9 rats/group), MTX: methotrexate (20 mg/kg), G 500: ginseng (500 mg/kg/day), GN 250: ginseng nanoparticles (250 mg/kg/day), GN 125: ginseng nanoparticles (125 mg/kg/day), G 500/MTX: ginseng (500 mg/kg/day) + methotrexate (20 mg/kg), GN 250/MTX: ginseng nanoparticles (250 mg/kg/day + methotrexate (20 mg/kg), GN 125/MTX: ginseng nanoparticles (125 mg/kg/day) + methotrexate (20 mg/kg). Data are expressed as mean ± S.D, and the difference between groups was evaluated using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test followed by Bonferroni multiple comparison test.
a significant difference compared to control group at P-value < 0.05
b significant difference compared to MTX group at P-value < 0.05
c significant difference compared to G 500/MTX group at P-value < 0.05
d significant difference compared to GN 250/MTX group at P-value < 0.05
CI = 95%