Table 2: The effect of ginseng and ginseng nanoparticles on the testicular histopathological changes induced by methotrexate in rats.


Histopathological parameter

Group Disruption of seminiferous tubules Detachment of spermatogenic cells Inflammation Edema of interstitium Congestion of vessels Sertoli cells degeneration Leydig cells degeneration
1. Control 0 ± 0 b 0 ± 0 b 0 ± 0 b 0 ± 0 b 0 ± 0 b 0 ± 0 b 0 ± 0 b
2. MTX 2.78 ± 0.44 a 2.67 ± 0.5 a 1.44 ± 0.88 a 2.56 ± 0.53 a 2.33 ± 0.5 a 2.11 ± 0.78 a 2 ± 0.71 a
3. G 500 0.22 ± 0.44 b 0 ± 0 b 0 ± 0 b 0 ± 0 b 0 ± 0 b 0 ± 0 b 0 ± 0 b
4. GN 250 0.44 ± 0.53 b 0 ± 0 b 0 ± 0 b 0 ± 0 b 0 ± 0 b 0 ± 0 b 0 ± 0 b
5. GN 125 0.22 ± 0.44 b 0 ± 0 b 0 ± 0 b 0 ± 0 b 0 ± 0 b 0 ± 0 b 0 ± 0 b
6. G 500/MTX 0.56 ± 0.53 b 0.44 ± 0.53 b 0 ± 0 b 0.33 ± 0.5 b 0.56 ± 0.53 b 0.56 ± 0.53 b 0.33 ± 0.5 b
7. GN 250/MTX 0.44 ± 0.53 b 0.67 ± 0.5 b 0 ± 0 b 0.33 ± 0.5 b 0.44 ± 0.53 b 0.56 ± 0.53 b 0.33 ± 0.5 b
8. GN 125/MTX 0.44 ± 0.53 b 0.22 ± 0.44 b 0 ± 0 b 0.11 ± 0.33 b 0.44 ± 0.53 b 0.33 ± 0.5 b 0.22 ± 0.44 b

n (9 rats/group), MTX: methotrexate (20 mg/kg), G 500: ginseng (500 mg/kg/day), GN 250: ginseng nanoparticles (250 mg/kg/day), GN 125: ginseng nanoparticles (125 mg/kg/day), G 500/MTX: ginseng (500 mg/kg/day) + methotrexate (20 mg/kg), GN 250/MTX: ginseng nanoparticles (250 mg/kg/day + methotrexate (20 mg/kg), GN 125/MTX: ginseng nanoparticles (125 mg/kg/day) + methotrexate (20 mg/kg). Data are expressed as mean ± S.D, and the difference between groups was evaluated using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test followed by Bonferroni multiple comparison test.
a significant difference compared to control group at P-value < 0.05
b significant difference compared to MTX group at P-value < 0.05
CI = 95%