Table 1: The effect of ginseng and ginseng nanoparticles on the serum levels of total testosterone ng/ml in methotrexate-induced testicular toxicity in rats, and on methotrexate-induced impairment of spermatogenesis assessed by Johnsen's tubular biopsy score (JTBS).


Group No. Group name Serum total testosterone (ng/ml) Johnsen's tubular biopsy score (JTBS)

1 Control 1.56 ± 0.62 b, d 9.33 ± 0.5 b
2 MTX 0.08 ± 0.07 a, c, d 3.78 ± 0.97 a
3 G 500 1.77 ± 1.03 b, d 8.89 ± 0.33 b
4 GN 250 3.25 ± 1.41 a, b, c 8.78 ± 0.44 b
5 GN 125 1.84 ± 1.04 b, d 8.79 ± 0.44 b
6 G 500/MTX 1.02 ± 0.93 d 7.89 ± 0.78 a, b
7 GN 250/MTX 0.13 ± 0.07 a, c, d 8.22 ± 0.83 a, b
8 GN 125/MTX 0.2 ± 0.15 a, c, d 8.56 ± 0.53 b

n (9 rats/group), MTX: methotrexate (20 mg/kg), G 500: ginseng (500 mg/kg/day), GN 250: ginseng nanoparticles (250 mg/kg/day), GN 125: ginseng nanoparticles (125 mg/kg/day), G 500/MTX: ginseng (500 mg/kg/day) + methotrexate (20 mg/kg), GN 250/MTX: ginseng nanoparticles (250 mg/kg/day + methotrexate (20 mg/kg), GN 125/MTX: ginseng nanoparticles (125 mg/kg/day) + methotrexate (20 mg/kg). Data are expressed as mean ± S.D, and the difference between groups was evaluated using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test followed by Bonferroni multiple comparison test.
a significant difference compared to control group at P-value < 0.05
b significant difference compared to MTX group at P-value < 0.05
c significant difference compared to G 500 group at P-value < 0.05
d significant difference compared to GN 250 group at P-value < 0.05
CI = 95%